Know about Diabetes!
What is diabetes mellitus?
Firstly, diabetes mellitus and diabetes is one and the same thing, expect that colloquially we say diabetes. Diabetes mellitus is a condition where the blood glucose or sugar level is high. In some cases of a diabetes mellitus patient, the pancreas fails to produce insulin that carries the glucose to the cell which in turn produces energy. In other cases the person going through diabetes mellitus does not use insulin well.
Type of diabetes
There are two types of diabetes mellitus:
Type 1 diabetes mellitus – Here diabetes mellitus is hereditary. It is known as insulin-dependent or IDDM, which is characterized by a lack of insulin production.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus – This is caused by lifestyle changes like regular consumption of unhealthy food plus sedentary life and increase in weight. It is also called non-insulin-dependent or aNIDDM. Diabetes mellitus is caused by the body’s ineffective use of insulin.
What is gestational diabetes?
Gestational diabetes is a kind of diabetes that comes on during pregnancy. It is often diagnosed on screening tests done between weeks 24 and 28 of pregnancy. According to the ADA gesstational diabetes affects 4% of all pregnant women. While doctors aren’t sure what causes gestational diabetes, it is believed that hormones from the placenta may block the action of insulin in the mother, leading to abnormally high levels of sugar in your blood.
What is pre-diabetes?
People who have a fasting plasma blood glucose in the 100-125 mg/dl range are defined as having impaired fasting glucose and a post prandial blood sugar between 141-199 are defined as having impaired glucose tolerance. These together are defined as pre-diabetes.”
Causes of diabetes:
The symptoms of pre-diabeties are:
– Feeling hungry often
– Weight loss or weight gain
– Slow healing of wounds, weakness, and blurry vision
– Infection of the gums, skin, vagina and bladder
Diet tips to fight pre-diabetes
They should have small meals, eat moderately, have foods that are low in fat and carbohydrate content. Further, in addition to the diet, they should indulge in some kind of daily exercise or outdoor activity.”
Are there any sugar substitutes for diabetics?
Yes, there are a few ways one can replace sugar and still control blood sugar levels. Honey, figs and raisins are sweet and healthy. Diabetics can also try out jaggery but watch out; you don’t want to go overboard with jaggery. It should be consumed in moderation.
Should you avoid rice if you are diabetic?
Indians with diabetes can consume rice. But it has to be two kinds of rice, Swarna and Mahsuri rice. ‘In fact, two types of rice commonly consumed by India’s middle classes have now been found to have the lowest Glycemic Index (GI) — the measure of its ability to raise blood sugar levels after eating.
Diabetes and its treatment
Diabetes is a condition that causes high blood sugar. It cannot be completely cured but it can definitely be managed. There are basically two types of diabetes, the first being Type 1 diabetes, wherein the body’s immune system destroys the insulin producing cells in the pancreas. Due to low insulin level, it is treated with daily insulin injections and a healthy diet. The second type is Type 2 diabetes, here the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or does not use insulin efficiently. It is treated by implementing a diet modification, exercise plan or oral medication.
Diet for diabetes
. There is no real harm with snacking when you are hungry but the key is to snack on healthy alternatives. A diabetic diet should be high on fiber, must contain milk without cream, buttermilk, fresh seasonal fruits, green vegetables, etc.”
List of dos and don’ts for diabetics
– Drink tomato juice with salt and pepper ever morning on an empty stomach.
– Per day calorie intake should be between 1,500-1,800 calories with a proportion of 60:20:20 between carbohydrates, fats and proteins, respectively.
– Artificial sweeteners can be used in cakes and sweets for diabetic people (in moderation).
– Keep a check on over-intake of dry fruits.
– Have lots of fluid.
– Have at least two seasonal fruits and three vegetables in a diet plan.
– Limit intake of alcohol.
– One teaspoon of methi seeds soaked overnight in 100 ml of water is very effective in controlling diabetes.
– Intake of 6 almonds (soaked overnight) is also helpful in keeping a check on diabetes.
How is diabetes linked to feet and leg problems?
Foot problems in diabetics result from poor circulation, nerve damage and decreased resistance to infection. High blood sugar level over a long period may affect blood vessels and nerves.
There are various signs of tissue and skin damage, which can be categorized as:
Dry skin is one of the most common symptoms among diabetes due to loss of body fluid and frequent urination.
Itchy skin could be another prior symptom which can be triggered by poor blood flow. Itching can be confined to one spot or may occur in many parts of the body especially in lower legs and feet.
Digital Sclerosis due to excess production of collagen among Type 1 diabetic patient results in waxy, tight skin on toes, fingers and hands. Dryness, burning, numbness and skin ulcers could be due to neuropathy when nerves are damaged. Patient suffers from pain in the lower extremities, burning and numbness. As a result, nerves in the legs and feet may not release sweat which is required to keep skin soft and moist.”
Important test for diabetes prevent and control
– First, get your blood pressure checked – your risk of developing high blood pressure doubles if you have diabetes. The ideal number: Below 130/80
– A foot exam: Pressure sores, cuts or ingrown nails can lead to infections and gangrene. Left untreated, an infection may lead to amputation. Daily self-exams are recommended.
– Every three to six months, depending on your type of diabetes and how well you’re controlling your blood sugar levels, have:
– A glycosylated haemoglobin (or haemoglobin A1C) test: This measures how well you have maintained blood sugar control for the last two or three months.
About Dt. Vaishali Gaur
After her Graduation in Nutrition and Post Graduation in Dietetics and Public Health Nutrition from the prestigious Lady Irwin College, She worked in Max Balaji Hospital , Pushpanjali Hospital and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital.
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